wbho: Race/ethnicity

wbho title image

Description

wbho is the four-category race or ethnicity of the individual.

Availability

Sample Years
Basic All years
May All years
ORG All years

Warning

This variable is mostly consistent over time, but there are race/ethnicity coding changes in 1989, 1996, 2003, 2012m5, and 2014. See the race/ethnicity methodology for more details.

Values

Value Label
1 White
2 Black
3 Hispanic
4 Other

Detailed comments

Significant race/ethnicity coding changes occur in 1989, 1996, 2003, 2012m5, and 2014.

In the figure above, 1973-1975 data are from the EPI CPS May extracts, and 1976-2019 data are from the EPI CPS Basic Monthly extracts.

Variable creation
********************************************************************************
* Race: WBHO
********************************************************************************
gen byte wbho = .

if $monthlycps == 1 | $maycps == 1 {
    if tm(1973m1) <= $date & $date <= tm(1988m12) {
        replace wbho = 1 if race == 1
        replace wbho = 2 if race == 2
        replace wbho = 4 if race == 3
        * Hispanic ethnicity
        replace wbho = 3 if hispanic == 1
    }
    if tm(1989m1) <= $date & $date <= tm(1993m12) {
        replace wbho = 1 if race == 1
        replace wbho = 2 if race == 2
        replace wbho = 4 if (3 <= race & race <= 5)
        * Hispanic ethnicity
        replace wbho = 3 if hispanic == 1
    }
    if tm(1994m1) <= $date & $date <= tm(1995m12) {
        replace wbho = 1 if perace == 1
        replace wbho = 2 if perace == 2
        replace wbho = 4 if (3 <= perace & perace <= 5)
        * Hispanic ethnicity
        replace wbho = 3 if hispanic == 1
    }
    if tm(1996m1) <= $date & $date <= tm(2002m12) {
        replace wbho = 1 if perace == 1
        replace wbho = 2 if perace == 2
        replace wbho = 4 if (3 <= perace & perace <= 4)
        * Hispanic ethnicity
        replace wbho = 3 if hispanic == 1
    }
    if tm(2003m1) <= $date & $date <= tm(2012m4) {
        * May 2004- June 2005: ptdtrace variable renamed to prdtrace
        if tm(2004m5) <= $date & $date <= tm(2005m7) {
            gen ptdtrace = prdtrace
        }
        replace wbho=1 if ptdtrace==1
        replace wbho=2 if ptdtrace==2
        replace wbho=2 if ptdtrace==6 /* black-white */ | ptdtrace==10 /*
        */ /* black-AI */ | ptdtrace==11 /* black-asian */ | ptdtrace==12 /*
        */ /* black-HP */ | ptdtrace==15 /* W-B-AI */ | ptdtrace==16 /* W-B-A */ /*
        */ | ptdtrace==19 /* W-B-AI-A */
        replace wbho=4 if (3<=ptdtrace & ptdtrace<=5)
        replace wbho=4 if ptdtrace==7 /* white-AI */ | ptdtrace==8 /*
        */ /* white-asian */ | ptdtrace==9 /* white-hawaiian */ | ptdtrace==13 /*
        */ /* AI-asian */ | ptdtrace==14 /* Asian-HP */ | ptdtrace==17 /* W-AI-A */ /*
        */ | ptdtrace==18 /* W-A-HP */ | ptdtrace==20 /* 2 or 3 races */ /*
        */ | ptdtrace==21 /* 4 or 5 races */
        * Hispanic ethnicity
        replace wbho = 3 if hispanic == 1
    }
    if tm(2012m5) <= $date {
        replace wbho=1 if ptdtrace==1 /* white */
        replace wbho=2 if ptdtrace==2 /* black */
        replace wbho=2 if ptdtrace==6 /* black-white */ | ptdtrace==10 /*
        */ /* black-AI */ | ptdtrace==11 /* black-asian */ | ptdtrace==12 /*
        */ /* black-HP */ | ptdtrace==16 /* W-B-AI */ | ptdtrace==17 /* W-B-A */ /*
        */ | ptdtrace==18 /* W-B-HP */ | ptdtrace==22 /* B-AI-A */ /*
        */ | ptdtrace==23 /* W-B-AI-A */
        replace wbho=4 if (3<=ptdtrace & ptdtrace<=5)
        replace wbho=4 if ptdtrace==7 /* white-AI */ | ptdtrace==8 /*
        */ /* white-asian */ | ptdtrace==9 /* white-hawaiian */ | ptdtrace==13 /*
        */ /* AI-asian */ | ptdtrace==14 /* AI-HP */ | ptdtrace==15 /* Asian-HP */ /*
        */ | ptdtrace==19 /* W-AI-A */ | ptdtrace==20 /* W-AI-HP */ /*
        */ | ptdtrace==21 /* W-A-HP */ | ptdtrace==24 /* W-AI-A-HP */ /*
        */ | ptdtrace==25 /* Other 3 races */ | ptdtrace==26 /* 4 and 5 races */
        * Hispanic ethnicity
        replace wbho = 3 if hispanic == 1
    }
}

lab var wbho "Race/ethnicity"
#delimit ;
lab define wbho
1 "White"
2 "Black"
3 "Hispanic"
4 "Other";
#delimit cr
lab val wbho wbho
notes wbho: Racial and ethnic categories are mutually exclusive
notes wbho: Definition breaks in 1989, 1996, 2003, 2012m5, 2014
notes wbho: Major recoding of race variable in 2003
notes wbho: From 2003, black includes all respondents listing black; other /*
*/ includes all respondents listing non-white or non-black races, except /*
*/ those also listing black
notes wbho: 1973-present: Hispanic definition from variable hispanic
notes wbho: 1973-1993 Unicon: race
notes wbho: 1994-2002 CPS: perace
notes wbho: 2003-present CPS: ptdtrace
Figure creation
keep if age >= 16 & age ~= .

cap drop hispanic

gen byte white = wbho == 1 if wbho ~= .
gen byte black = wbho == 2 if wbho ~= .
gen byte hispanic = wbho == 3 if wbho ~= .
gen byte other = wbho == 4 if wbho ~= .

gcollapse (mean) white black hispanic other [pw=basicwgt], by(year) fast
sum year
local maxyear = r(max)
foreach var of varlist white black hispanic other {
    replace `var' = `var' * 100
    sum `var' if year == `maxyear'
    local `var'yvalue = r(mean)
    local `var'xvalue = `maxyear' + 0.5
}

local color1 228 26 28
local color2 55 126 184
local color3 77 175 74
local color4 152 78 163

line white black hispanic other year, ///
legend(off) ///
xlabel(1975(5)2015) ///
ylabel(0(20)60 80 "80%", angle(0) gmin gmax) ///
xtitle("") ytitle("") ///
lcolor("`color1'" "`color2'" "`color3'" "`color4'") ///
graphregion(color(white) margin(r=17)) plotregion(color(white)) ///
title("Share of population by race/ethnicity, ages 16 and over", size(medium)) ///
text(`whiteyvalue' `whitexvalue' "White", color("`color1'") placement(e)) ///
text(`blackyvalue' `blackxvalue' "Black", color("`color2'") placement(e)) ///
text(`hispanicyvalue' `hispanicxvalue' "Hispanic", color("`color3'") placement(e)) ///
text(`otheryvalue' `otherxvalue' "Other", color("`color4'") placement(e))
graph export ${variableimages}wbho_titleimage.svg, replace

/***
Significant race/ethnicity coding changes occur in 1989, 1996, 2003, 2012m5, and 2014.  

In the figure above, 1973-1975 data are from the EPI CPS May extracts, and 1976-2019 data are from the EPI CPS Basic Monthly extracts.
***/